Even the simplest surgery in the field of medicine contains various risks. Therefore, a patient who wants to have liposuction performed have to leave aside the perception of a surgery without risk. There is no rule that every patient will experience these risks. Some patients do not experience any potential postoperative liposuction complications, whereas some have problems due to these. The patient should discuss potential risks with his/her doctor prior to the surgery; however, liposuction surgeries are still among the surgeries that carry less complicated risks. Potential postoperative risks are examined from two different views. These complications divided as the early stage and late stage do not cause big harms. Early stage complications are a seroma, bruises, and swelling, infection, allergic reaction, bleeding and sensation of pins and needles in the area where the procedure is applied.Bruises and Swelling: Bruises and swelling may be seen due to the sensitiveness of the human body after all surgeries. However, the condition that constitutes risk is an extreme amount of bruises and swelling observed. A special corset used to prevent seroma risk is also known to prevent the formation of bruises and swelling after the surgery.
Seroma: In this case, there is a fluid accumulation in the area the liposuction procedure is applied to the patient. The patient conducts an additional procedure in order to dispose of this accumulated fluid. Special corsets are recommended to patients in the postoperative period in order to prevent this condition. Extreme formation of bruises and swelling may be related to the corset not being used as long as required, the condition of bleeding under the skin or medications that are used for avoiding pain after the surgery. Extreme formation of bruises and swelling in the postoperative period are not permanent. It does not require an extra intervention. They would recover in a short period such as 2 to 3 months or would completely disappear in 6 to 12 months. Bruises and swelling seen in some cases do not stay in the patient’s body that much.
Infection: This risk exists in almost all surgeries. However, this is encountered very rarely in patients depending on the sensitivity of the patient and the sterility of the environment where the surgery is performed. Antibiotic, which is given to the patient after the surgery is aimed at protecting the patient from any infection. The patient has to call his/her doctor in situations that indicate an infection in the area after the surgery. Allergic Reaction: This is a serious complication that needs additional treatment just like a seroma. It is rarely seen that patients give reaction to materials, such as materials used for stitching, during the surgery. The reaction given to medications used during the surgery is accepted to be more serious than the reaction given to materials used. In such cases, it is mandatory for the patient to consult the doctor.
The sensation of pins and needles in the area: There may a loss of sensation in the area due to the hanging tissue structure after liposuction surgery. This loss of sensation is rarely seen. In such cases, the patient has to consult his/her doctor. Permanency of this loss of sensation is a rare condition.
Bleeding: This condition is reduced significantly by the advancement of liposuction methods.
Problems encountered in later stages: Anaesthesia, unsatisfactory result, fat embolism, and irregularities.
Anaesthesia: All surgeries that require local or general anaesthesia have this risk; because local or general anaesthesia types have their own risks. Risk conditions are especially encountered in the lungs. Small closings occurring in the lungs may transform into an infection. In this case, the use of antibiotic is mandatory. In addition to the antibiotic, the patient may receive respiration physiotherapy. However, this condition is not often encountered.Unsatisfactory result: This situation starts when the patient looks at himself/herself after the surgery and see that he/she could not have the desired appearance and results and wants to have another extra liposuction surgery.
Fat embolism: This is the most dangerous potential complication that may be encountered. This complication, if encountered may lead to death, needs to be treated by the hospitalization of the patient. In this complication, as a result of the pain and swelling encountered in the leg, clots start to circulate in the bloodstream. When clots reach to lungs, they may cause death. It is not often possible to encounter this condition that may result in death.
Irregularity: This situation is completely related to the unaesthetic appearance seen in the body after the surgery. This is based on the bumpy appearance that arises after the surgery due to uneven fat removal during liposuction surgery. It is usually seen immediately after the surgery, however in case it is mixed with the bruises and swelling encountered in the early stages, it is needed to wait 6 months in order to see a clear sign on the patient. The correction of the bumpy appearance, which is not reduced after the bruises and swelling are recovered, is performed after 6 months. In some cases, sagging is seen after the surgery, depending on the fat mass removed from the patient and this causes an irregular and unaesthetic appearance. Reduction and prevention of this are ensured in laser liposuction, whereas in other liposuction methods, it is solved by an additional stretching surgery. Other complications seen are the perforation of the abdominal wall, loss of skin, and wavy appearance on the skin. The wavy appearance is the most encountered condition among these complications. This may be eliminated by some massaging techniques. The perforation of the abdominal wall is encountered especially on patients who have given multiple births and who suffer from a hernia.
This condition may be prevented by the doctor via information sharing prior to the liposuction surgery. Loss of skin is one of the rarely encountered liposuction complications. It is encountered especially in the liposuction procedure performed on patients who are heavy smokers. It is eliminated by a reduction in smoking.